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To evaluate changes over time in rates of bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis (TV), and yeast vaginitis (YV) among HIV-infected and similar HIV-uninfected women.Two thousand fifty-six HIV-infected women and 554 HIV-uninfected women were evaluated semiannually from 1994 until March 2003 in a prospective cohort study. BV was diagnosed by Gram stain, TV by wet mount, and YV by symptoms with microscopically visible hyphae or positive culture. Trends were assessed using Poisson models.At baseline, BV was present in 42.8% and 47.0% of HIV-infected and uninfected women (P = 0.21), TV in 6.1% and 7.8% (P = 0.17), and YV in 10.0% and 3.8% (P < 0.001). Over time, rates of BV and TV decreased significantly in both groups, whereas rates of YV declined only among HIV-infected women. Risk of BV was not associated with HIV status, whereas HIV-infected women had a lower risk of TV. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use was associated with decreased risk of all 3 infections.Declines in BV, TV, and YV represent decreased morbidity for HIV-infected women and, potentially, decreased risk of transmission of HIV, because each has been associated with increased genital detection of HIV.