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To determine visceral adiposity (VAT), subcutaneous adiposity (SAT), and regional body adipose differences between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected subjects in relation to body mass index (BMI) and World Health Organization BMI categories.Analyses were conducted of 306 HIV-infected and 107 community-derived HIV-negative subjects evaluated for metabolic studies between 1999 and 2006. Analyses were stratified by gender. Additional analyses were performed stratifying subjects by metabolic syndrome status.HIV-infected men and women demonstrated decreased total extremity fat by 1.1 kg and 0.85 kg, respectively, relative to non-HIV-infected control subjects. VAT was increased among HIV-infected men and women in the normal (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) and overweight (25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) categories relative to control subjects but not among those in the obese category (≥30.0 kg/m2). In contrast, abdominal SAT was reduced among HIV-infected men in the normal and overweight categories but was similar among HIV-infected women and control subjects in these categories. Abdominal SAT was increased among HIV-infected women in the obese category relative to control subjects. Similar results were obtained limiting the analysis to HIV-infected (n = 204) and control subjects (n = 89) without the metabolic syndrome.Peripheral lipoatrophy is a consistent finding among HIV-infected men and women with metabolic abnormalities. Relative increases in VAT are most pronounced among male and female HIV-infected subjects in the normal weight and overweight categories. Gender differences in abdominal SAT accumulation are observed, with preservation of SAT among HIV-infected women relative to control subjects.