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HIV infection has been associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in the first world. Despite the high burden of HIV infection in sub-Saharan regions, published data on HIV and malignancies are sparse from these areas.We recently published data on lymphomas diagnosed from January 2004 to December 2006, at a single center in Johannesburg, to serve as a baseline for long-term comparison during the period of highly active antiretroviral therapy rollout. We report a retrospective analysis of the follow-up data collected from January 2007 to December 2009 at the Johannesburg academic hospital complex (Gauteng, South Africa).There were 2225 new diagnoses of lymphoproliferative disorders made during 2007-2009 as compared with 1897 cases diagnosed during 2004-2006. A significant increase in both high-grade B-cell lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma was documented during 2007-2009. This was associated with a statistically significant increase in HIV prevalence in those tested (from 44.3% in 2004-2006 to 62.0% in 2007-2009). HIV-positive patients presented at a statistically significantly younger median age and showed a relative overrepresentation of females when compared with HIV-negative patients. HIV-positive patients were diagnosed at later stages of HIV infection when compared with patients in the first world.The pattern of lymphoma subtypes and the demographics of the patients diagnosed have altered in association with significantly increased HIV prevalence. These changes have important public health implications. In particular, scale-up and earlier access to highly active antiretroviral therapy is essential with continued monitoring as access to therapy improves.