Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetic Interactions of the Antituberculous Agent TMC207 (Bedaquiline) With Efavirenz in Healthy Volunteers: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5267


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Abstract

Background:Drug–drug interactions complicate management of coinfection with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bedaquiline (formerly TMC207), an investigational agent for the treatment of tuberculosis, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A which may be induced by the antiretroviral drug efavirenz.Methods:This was a phase 1 pharmacokinetic drug interaction trial. Each healthy volunteer received two 400 mg doses of bedaquiline, the first alone and the second with concomitant steady-state efavirenz. Plasma pharmacokinetic sampling for bedaquiline and its N-monodesmethyl metabolite was performed over 14 days after each bedaquiline dose. Steady-state efavirenz pharmacokinetics were also determined. Efavirenz metabolizer status was based on CYP2B6 composite 516/983 genotype.Results:Thirty-three of 37 enrolled subjects completed the study. Geometric mean of ratios for bedaquiline with efavirenz versus bedaquiline alone were 0.82 [90% confidence interval (CI): 0.75 to 0.89] for the 14-day area under the concentration–time curve (AUC0–336 h) and 1.00 (90% CI: 0.88 to 1.13) for the maximum concentration (Cmax). For N-monodesmethyl metabolite, the geometric mean of ratios was 1.07 (90% CI: 0.97 to 1.19) for AUC0–336 h and 1.89 (90% CI: 1.66 to 2.15) for Cmax. There were no grade 3 or 4 clinical adverse events. One subject developed asymptomatic grade 3 serum transaminase elevation, prompting study drug discontinuation. Efavirenz concentrations stratified by CYP2B6 genotype were similar to historical data.Conclusions:Single-dose bedaquiline was well tolerated alone and with steady-state efavirenz. The effect of efavirenz on bedaquiline concentrations is unlikely to be clinically significant.

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