Incidence of Pregnancy After Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Associated Factors in 8 West African Countries

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Abstract

Introduction:

This study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in 8 West African countries over a 10-year period.

Methods:

A retrospective analysis was conducted within the international database of the IeDEA West Africa Collaboration. All HIV-infected women aged <50 years and starting ART for their own health between 1998 and 2011 were eligible. Pregnancy after ART initiation was the main outcome and was based on clinical reporting. Poisson regression analysis accounting for country heterogeneity was computed to estimate first pregnancy incidence post-ART and to identify its associated factors. Pregnancy incidence rate ratios were adjusted on country, baseline CD4 count and clinical stage, hemoglobin, age, first ART regimen, and calendar year.

Results:

Overall, 29,425 HIV-infected women aged 33 years in median (interquartile range, 28–38) contributed for 84,870 women-years of follow-up to this analysis. The crude incidence of first pregnancy (2304 events) was 2.9 per 100 women-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7 to 3.0], the highest rate being reported among women aged 25–29 years: 4.7 per 100 women-years; 95% CI: 4.3 to 5.1. The overall Kaplan–Meier probability of pregnancy occurrence by the fourth year on ART was 10.9% (95% CI: 10.4 to 11.4) and as high as 28.4% (95% CI: 26.3 to 30.6) among women aged 20–29 years at ART initiation.

Conclusions:

The rate of pregnancy occurrence after ART initiation among HIV-infected women living in the West Africa region was high. Family planning services tailored to procreation needs should be provided to all HIV-infected women initiating ART and health consequences carefully monitored in this part of the world.

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