Bridging the Efficacy–Effectiveness Gap in HIV Programs: Lessons From Economics

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Background:Bridging the efficacy–effectiveness gap in HIV prevention and treatment requires policies that account for human behavior.Setting:Worldwide.Methods:We conducted a narrative review of the literature on HIV in the field of economics, identified common themes within the literature, and identified lessons for implementation science.Results:The reviewed studies illustrate how behaviors are shaped by perceived costs and benefits across a wide range of health and nonhealth domains, how structural constraints shape decision-making, how information interventions can still be effective in the epidemic's fourth decade, and how lessons from behavioral economics can be used to improve intervention effectiveness.Conclusion:Economics provides theoretical insights and empirical methods that can guide HIV implementation science.

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