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Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in HIV-infected Youth

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Abstract

Background:

Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant co-morbidity in HIV. However, studies evaluating vitamin D supplementation on bone health in this population are limited. This study investigates changes in bone health parameters after 12 months of supplementation in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency.

Methods:

This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating changes in bone parameters with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in HIV-infected youth 8-25 years old with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 ng/mL. Bone mineral density and bone turnover markers were measured at baseline and 12 months.

Results:

One hundred and two subjects enrolled. Over 12 months, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased with all doses, but the high dose (i.e. 120,000 IU/monthly) maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations in an optimal range (≥30 ng/mL or ≥20 ng/mL) throughout the study period for more subjects (85% and 93%, respectively) compared to either the moderate (54% and 88%, respectively) or standard dose (63% and 80%, respectively). All dosing groups showed some improvement in BMD; however, only the high-dose arm showed significant decreases in bone turnover markers for both procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (-3.7 ng/mL; P=0.001) and Β-CrossLaps (-0.13 ng/mL; P=0.0005).

Conclusions:

High dose vitamin D supplementation (120,000 IU/month) given over 12 months decreases bone turnover markers in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency, which may represent an early, beneficial effect on bone health. High vitamin D doses are needed to maintain optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

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