Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Markers in HIV-infected Youth

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Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a significant co-morbidity in HIV. However, studies evaluating vitamin D supplementation on bone health in this population are limited. This study investigates changes in bone health parameters after 12 months of supplementation in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency.


This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating changes in bone parameters with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in HIV-infected youth 8-25 years old with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 ng/mL. Bone mineral density and bone turnover markers were measured at baseline and 12 months.


One hundred and two subjects enrolled. Over 12 months, serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased with all doses, but the high dose (i.e. 120,000 IU/monthly) maintained serum 25(OH)D concentrations in an optimal range (≥30 ng/mL or ≥20 ng/mL) throughout the study period for more subjects (85% and 93%, respectively) compared to either the moderate (54% and 88%, respectively) or standard dose (63% and 80%, respectively). All dosing groups showed some improvement in BMD; however, only the high-dose arm showed significant decreases in bone turnover markers for both procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (-3.7 ng/mL; P=0.001) and Β-CrossLaps (-0.13 ng/mL; P=0.0005).


High dose vitamin D supplementation (120,000 IU/month) given over 12 months decreases bone turnover markers in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency, which may represent an early, beneficial effect on bone health. High vitamin D doses are needed to maintain optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

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