Prolonged norovirus infection after pancreas transplantation: a case report and review of chronic norovirus

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Norovirus is a major cause of self-limited gastroenteritis worldwide. Prevention and treatment are thwarted by rapid viral evolution, and thus supportive care remains the mainstay of therapy. Chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts is increasingly described. We report a case of norovirus infection lasting 2543 days in a pancreas transplant recipient. Serial fecal specimens were obtained, from which a map of genetic relatedness was derived. The clinical course was complicated by renal failure that progressed to end-stage renal disease. Minimization of immunosuppression was associated with resolution of the infection. Subsequently, the patient experienced a suspected allograft rejection that did not compromise pancreas function. The patient later underwent living-related renal transplantation without recurrence of enteritis.

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