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To compare partial ossicular replacement (POR) with type II tympanoplasty (T2) with regard to the postoperative hearing outcomes in patients with congenital aural atresia.A retrospective review of medical records.Tertiary referral center.Thirty-four ears undergoing POR were compared with matched 34 ears by age at operation, grade of microtia, and the Jahrsdoerfer grading scale score that underwent T2.The medical records of the patients that underwent surgery for congenital aural atresia were reviewed.The preoperative and postoperative air-conduction threshold, air-bone gap, and air-bone gap closure were compared between the 2 groups.Thirty-four ears in each group were compared. PORs were performed in cases of a incudostapedial joint problem, ossicular anomaly, or ossicular fixation. The preoperative and 6-month postoperative mean air-conduction thresholds and air-bone gaps were not significantly different in the comparisons between the 2 groups. The mean values for the postoperative air-bone gap closure were not significantly different in the 2 groups. The hearing results 3 years after surgery were available in 13 patients in each group. In these patients, the mean values of the preoperative and the 3-year postoperative air-conduction threshold and air-bone gap were not statistically different in the 2 groups. However, the mean air-bone gap closure in the POR group was 28.6 ± 10.2 dB hearing level compared with 19.0 ± 12.9 dB hearing loss in the T2 group, which was statistically significant (p = 0.034).POR can be a good surgical option in cases of a poor incudostapedial joint connection, ossicular anomaly, or ossicular fixation.