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To study the involvement of the different semicircular canals in posttraumatic benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo (BPPV) with special reference to the anterior canal (AC).Retrospective review.Tertiary referral center.Seventy-four BPPV patients.Neurotologic assessment with video-oculography; treatment of BPPV with the canalith repositioning procedure appropriate for the affected semicircular canal.Number of patients with AC, posterior canal (PC), horizontal canal (HC), and multiple-canal involvement in posttraumatic versus idiopathic BPPV.85.1% of patients were classified as idiopathic BPPV, whereas 14.9% had a history of posttraumatic BPPV. The prevalence of AC BPPV was significantly higher in the posttraumatic group (27.3%) compared with that in the idiopathic group (3.2%; Fisher's exact test: p = 0.021). Multiple-canal (combined) BPPV was observed more frequently after head trauma (27.3%) compared with the idiopathic form of the disorder (1.6%; p = 0.009). In particular, the risk for combined AC/PC BPPV was greater in posttraumatic than idiopathic cases (odds ratio, 13.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-167.8). No significant differences were observed for the involvement of the PC and HC between the two groups. Two cases of combined AC/PC BPPV are presented with particular respect to the underlying trauma mechanism.Head trauma is a risk factor for AC and combined BPPV, in particular AC/PC BPPV. Involvement of the AC should especially be considered in patients who experienced head trauma resulting in a nonupright position of the body.