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Investigate the recurrence of chronic otitis media after primary and revision myringoplasty, compare long-term anatomic and audiologic results of underlay and overlay myringoplasty, and examine the prognostic factors.Retrospective study.Approximately 1,040 adult patients with chronic simple otitis media undergoing a myringoplasty (overlay and underlay) by different surgeons at a single institution (ENT Department of Bergamo Ospedali Riuniti) between May 1999 and March 2009.The cumulative recurrence rate of chronic otitis media during 10-year follow-up period was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. A multivariate analysis was used to evaluate different prognostic factors based on long-term outcome in myringoplasty.The overall 10-year graft success rate was 78% in 1,040 patients. The 10-year recurrence rate of chronic otitis media was 15% in overlay myringoplasty and 26% using the underlay technique (p < 0.05). In revision myringoplasty, the overlay technique showed a better success rate than underlay (p < 0.05). Significant recovery was observed in the air conduction thresholds and air-bone gaps in both groups with no statistical difference between techniques (p = 0.1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the underlay myringoplasty technique, a pathologic contralateral ear and an anterior or subtotal perforation, using a perichondrial graft or age of surgery younger than 40 years were statistically significant (p < 0.01) factors that negatively influenced the myringoplasty outcomes.More successful outcomes in primary and revision surgery for chronic otitis media occurred using overlay myringoplasty, although there were more minor postoperative complications. Both clinical and technical variables affected the success rate of myringoplasty.