A Prospective Randomized, Controlled Study Comparing Low Pressure Versus High Pressure Pneumoperitoneum During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy


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Abstract

BackgroundThe increase in intra-abdominal pressure by insufflation of carbon dioxide during laparoscopy brings certain changes in function of organ systems and also leads to postoperative pain. Degree of intra-abdominal pressure is directly related with such change. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed at low pressure pneumoperitoneum. However, available space for dissection is less than the high pressure pneumoperitoneum.MethodsTwenty-six patients for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied in a prospective, randomized, patient, and surgeon blinded manner. The intra-abdominal pressure was kept either in low pressure (8 mm Hg) or in high pressure (12 mm Hg). All patients underwent two dimensional echocardiography, pulmonary function test and color Doppler examination of lower limb vessels preoperatively and postoperatively. Arterial blood gas analysis and End Tidal CO2 monitored before insufflation, during surgery and after deflation. Pain score was measured by visual analog scale and surgeon's comfort level was recorded. Postoperative analgesia requirement, complications, and hospital stay were recorded. Student t test used for the statistical analysis.ResultsBoth groups match for the demographic parameters. Four patients required conversion to high pressure. Intraoperative pO2 level, postoperative pain, analgesic requirement, pulmonary function, and hospital stay were favoring low pressure pneumoperitoneum in a statistically significant manner. There was no difference between 2 groups for duration of surgery, intraoperative, and postoperative complications. However, the technical difficulties were graded more (statistically nonsignificant) with low pressure pneumoperitoneum.ConclusionsAn uncomplicated gall stone disease can be treated by low pressure laparoscopic cholecystectomy with reasonable safety by an experienced surgeon. Though surgeons experience more difficulty in dissection during low pressure pneumoperitoneum, it is significantly advantageous in terms of postoperative pain, use of analgesics, preservation of pulmonary function, and hospital stay.

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