Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing the Extracardiac Fontan Operation With and Without the Use of Cardiopulmonary Bypass

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Abstract

Objectives:

To describe the prevalence and risk factors for acute kidney injury in patients undergoing the extracardiac Fontan operation with and without cardiopulmonary bypass, and to determine whether acute kidney injury is associated with duration of mechanical ventilation, cardiovascular ICU and hospital postoperative length of stay, and early mortality.

Design:

Single-center retrospective cohort study.

Setting:

Pediatric cardiovascular ICU, university-affiliated children’s hospital.

Patients:

Patients with a preoperative creatinine before undergoing first-time extracardiac Fontan between January 1, 2004, and April 30, 2012.

Interventions:

None.

Measurements and Main Results:

Acute kidney injury occurred in 55 of 138 patients (39.9%), including 41 (29.7%) with stage 1, six (4.4%) with stage 2, and eight (5.8%) with stage 3 acute kidney injury. Cardiopulmonary bypass was strongly associated with a higher risk of any acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8 [95% CI, 1.4–16.0]; p = 0.01) but not stage 2/3 acute kidney injury. Lower renal perfusion pressure on the day of surgery (postoperative day, 0) was associated with a higher risk of stage 2/3 acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2 [95% CI, 1.0–1.5]; p = 0.03). Higher vasoactive-inotropic score on postoperative day 0 was associated with a higher risk for stage 2/3 acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.0–3.4]; p = 0.04). Stage 2/3 acute kidney injury was associated with longer cardiovascular ICU length of stay (mean, 7.3 greater d [95% CI, 3.4–11.3]; p < 0.001) and hospital postoperative length of stay (mean, 6.4 greater d [95% CI, 0.06–12.5]; p = 0.04).

Conclusions:

Postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing the extracardiac Fontan operation is common and is associated with lower postoperative renal perfusion pressure and higher vasoactive-inotropic score. Cardiopulmonary bypass was strongly associated with any acute kidney injury, although not stage 2/3 acute kidney injury. Stage 2/3 acute kidney injury is a compelling risk factor for longer cardiovascular ICU and hospital postoperative length of stay. Increased attention to and management of renal perfusion pressure may reduce postoperative acute kidney injury and improve outcomes.

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