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The aim of this review is to update readers on the growing impact of a molecular approach (CRD) to the diagnosis and treatment of children with respiratory allergiesA large panel of highly purified natural or recombinant species-specific and cross-reacting allergenic molecules is now available for clinical purposes. Species-specific molecules allow identifying specific sensitization toward a given allergenic source. Cross-reacting molecules allow interpreting polysensitization patterns that cannot be detailed using routine skin prick tests or specific IgE tests based on allergenic extracts. These molecular tools are transforming and improving the interpretation of clinical and laboratory tests used to define patients’ IgE-sensitization profile.The accurate dissection of the IgE repertoire offers new possibilities in the diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.