Allergic conjunctivitis: an update on diagnosis and management

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The focus of this review is to provide a logical paradigm for the diagnosis and treatment of ocular allergies, with a focus on seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) and perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC).

Recent findings

Several classes of topical medications are currently available for the management of ocular allergies, including: lubricating agents, vasoconstrictors, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, and topical corticosteroids.

Summary

SAC and PAC make up the vast majority of ocular allergy cases. A proactive approach to these diseases, anticipating the regional spring and fall allergen spikes, is needed for optimally managing these disorders. A multifaceted treatment regimen comprising patient education, lifestyle modification, and topical medications (such as antihistamines and/or mast cell stabilizers and corticosteroids) may be required in order to manage ocular allergies effectively. The appropriate treatment paradigm is based on the severity of the patients’ signs and symptoms. For moderate-to-severe cases, especially chronic vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, and giant papillary conjunctivitis, comanagement with an ophthalmologist is recommended.

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