Anaphylaxis and sport

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Purpose of reviewThis article aims to review the most relevant studies on exercise-induced anaphylaxis, published in the last year, in order to provide comprehensive and updated evidence and hopefully contribute to a better definition of its pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment strategies.Recent findingsThe search strategy was performed from 1/2/2013 to 31/1/2014 by scanning the principal electronic bibliographic database and by hand-searching the main scientific publications in Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Among the identified articles, 17 articles were selected to be part of the systematic review. Eligible studies included five experimental trials, eight case reports and four letters.SummaryThe overall collected evidence was of very low quality. No randomized controlled trials were identified by the searching process. Most of the data derived from reports performed in small population samples or even in individual cases. Except for one article addressing issues related to the preventive management of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, all other articles focused on prevalence rates, causative triggers and pathogenetic mechanisms. More interesting findings were related to the influence of the IL-4-C590T polymorphism on the onset of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and to the usefulness of the immuno solid-phase allergen chip technique in the allergic screening of polysensityzed athletes at risk of severe reactions.

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