Ocular allergy as a risk factor for dry eye in adults and children

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Purpose of reviewTo provide an overview of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the correlation between ocular allergy and dry eye disease (DED), highlighting how the first condition may be a risk factor for the second one.Recent findingsRecent advances in our comprehension of the pathogenesis of ocular allergy and DED allow identifying several pathways of interaction between these two conditions. A growing body of evidence supports the role of ocular allergy as a risk factor for DED. Ocular allergy, particularly the severe forms of keratoconjunctivitis, can impact on different key mechanisms of the DED vicious cycle, including tear film instability, ocular surface inflammation and damage, and neurosensory abnormalities.SummaryOcular allergy and DED are two common, relevant, symptomatic, not mutually exclusive conditions affecting the ocular surface. They share some clinical and biochemical features. To better understand the complex interactions between these two conditions, it's essential to consider the very wide spectrum of clinical conditions included in the term ocular allergy and the still largely unexplored peculiarities of the pediatric ocular surface physio-pathology and DED.

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