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Oxygen-derived free radical formation can lead to cellular injury and death. Under normal situations, the human body has a free radical scavenger system (catalase, superoxide dismutase) that can detoxify free radicals. Antioxidant vitamins and enzymatic and synthetic oxygen-derived free radical scavengers have been used clinically to prevent the formation of oxidized LDL and to prevent reperfusion injury, which is often caused by free radicals. In this article, the pathogenesis of free radical production and cell injury are discussed, and therapeutic approaches for disease prevention are presented.