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Athletic injuries to the lumbar spine are relatively common, depending upon the specific sport. With proper management, the majority of injuries resolve quickly and allow for rapid return to sport. However, some of these injuries occur because of improper mechanics that adversely affect the core stability of the spine, or conversely these injuries cause instability of the spine through disruption of the spinal support mechanisms. Development of an appropriate treatment plan depends on a thorough understanding of the structures providing core stability and the exercises to correct identifiable deficits. A comprehensive rehabilitation program should include correction of flexibility and strength deficits, with subsequent progression to functional and sports-specific exercises. The purpose of this paper is to review current concepts regarding core stability and rehabilitation in the athlete.