|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The purpose of this study was to test the construct validity of the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) by using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The PAI was developed by Muller (1989, 1993), and consists of 21 Likert-type items arranged on a 4-point response set ranging from “almost always” to “almost never.” A sample of 349 pregnant women in their third trimester was recruited from obstetrical outpatient and inpatient centers, including high-risk and low-risk pregnancy units, and childbirth education classes. Confirmatory factor analysis of the instrument yielded the result that all items have a significant factor loading. There were no negative error variances, no factor correlations greater than one, and no extremely large error variance. The indicator reliabilities ranged from .2 to .5. Moreover, the correlation matrix indicated that all PAI items were significantly related to one another at p <.01. These 21 items explained 79% of variance in maternal fetal attachment (MFA). The overall measurement model fit indices showed that the hypothesized model fit the data well after two modifications (χ2/df = 2.12, standardized root mean square residual= .05, goodness-of-fit index = .90, critical N = 204.5). The findings indicate that Muller's PAI is a valid instrument for research with pregnant women. Researchers can use this instrument for future research studies in the health care of pregnant women. Nursing educators and clinicians can use this instrument to assess expectant mothers' level of MFA.