Stress, Workplace Violence, and Burnout in Nurses Working in King Abdullah Medical City During Al-Hajj Season

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Background:The Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, one of the largest mass gatherings in the world, is associated with various challenges for nurses. One of these challenges is increased levels of workplace violence. Therefore, handling and mitigating workplace violence against nurses during Hajj, when nurses face a higher risk of violence and most experience stress and burnout, is of particular importance.Purpose:The aims of this study were to identify the types and sources of workplace violence, examine the relationship between burnout in nurses and the variables of stress and workplace violence, and identify from the perspective of nurses measures to effectively handle and mitigate these issues during Hajj season.Methods:This study used a descriptive correlational design. A convenience sample of 118 nurses completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the modified version of the Joint Programme on Workplace Violence in the Health Sector published by the International Labour Office in Geneva. Data analysis was done using an independent samples t test and Pearson product–moment correlation.Results:One hundred eighteen nurses completed the study. Over two thirds (65%) were female, and 56% reported experiencing at least one type of violence, of which bullying/mobbing, racial harassment, threats, and physical violence accounted for 61%, 15%, 12%, and 12%, respectively. Nurse managers displayed violent behaviors against 54% of the participants. Participants reported high levels of stress and burnout. A positive relationship was found between stress and emotional exhaustion (r = .387, p < .01). Providing effective security measures and staff training regarding how to deal with violence at the workplace were the main measures identified to help reduce workplace violence.Conclusions:Providing effective security measures and tailored intervention programs addressing how to deal with violence in the workplace may enable nurses to handle violent behaviors more effectively.

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