Significant increase of colonic mutated crypts correlates with age in sporadic cancer and diverticulosis cases, with higher frequency in the left- than right-side colorectum

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Mild periodic acid–Schiff (mPAS) staining can discriminate non-O-acetylated (mPAS-positive) from O-acetylated (mPAS-negative) epithelial sialoglycoproteins in human colonic mucosa, allowing the three haplotypes expressed from a single polymorphic autosomal gene (oat) to be distinguished. In heterozygotes, we previously demonstrated wholly mPAS-positive (stem cell mutated) crypts and clusters of two or more mPAS-positive crypts to be significantly increased with duration of ulcerative colitis. To establish whether such an increase in the number of mutated crypts with age also occurs in normal individuals or in cases with diverticulosis, the O-acetylation phenotype in the non-cancerous colonic mucosa of 47 sporadic colorectal cancer patients who were heterozygotes for oat was tested with mild-PAS staining. PAS-positive crypts were assessed histologically in relation to age and compared between the left (sigmoid colon and rectum) and right (cecum and ascending colon) sides of the colorectum. Wholly mPAS-positive (stem cell mutated) crypts and foci in heterozygotes were found to be increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in the left side with aging (r = 0.598 and 0.643, respectively). Such a positive correlation with aging was also confirmed in 19 diverticulosis cases without cancer (r = 0.797 and 0.793, respectively). The frequency of mutated crypts and foci on the right side was significantly lower than on the left side in both spontaneous colorectal cancer and diverticulosis cases. The results provide support for an intimate relationship between accumulation of mutated crypts with aging, possibly with significance for colorectal cancer development. Furthermore, the environment in the right side of the colon may be different from that in the left side in this regard.

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