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Dehydration alters cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, central nervous system, and metabolic functions. One or more of these alterations will degrade endurance exercise performance when dehydration exceeds 2% of body weight. These performance decrements are accentuated by heat stress. To minimize the adverse consequences of body water deficits on endurance exercise performance, it is recommended that fluid intake be sufficient to minimize dehydration to less than 2% of body weight loss. This can usually be achieved with fluid intakes of under 1 L ¥ h-1.