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Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been studied extensively in both animal and human models. CLA supplementation has been attributed to provide several health benefits that are based largely upon animal and in vitro studies. Recent literature suggests that CLA supplementation possesses an anti-adipogenic role. However, the results of studies in humans have not been as consistent in this regard as anticipated from animal models. In addition to body composition, CLA also recently has been investigated in terms of exercise performance. The following review summarizes the most recent scientific investigations relative to CLA supplementation and its effects upon body composition and exercise performance. Additionally, recent investigations into the safety of CLA supplementation also are reviewed.