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While orthopedic injuries most commonly are associated with sports, infectious diseases cause significant morbidity in athletes. Exercise improves immunity at moderate intensity but impairs immune function at extremes of duration and intensity. Respiratory infections are the most common, but skin, blood borne, sexually transmitted, and even cardiac infections occur. Infectious disease outbreaks are a constant concern. Treatment of such infections resembles those used in the general population. Return to play issues and prevention of infection are especially important in athletes.