This article presents the generally accepted indications for LDL apheresis treatment. The available LDL apheresis methods differ with respect to acute relative reductions of LDL cholesterol; mean values after the LDL apheresis treatments are not different. Serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and lipoprotein(a) are also acutely reduced. Available LDL apheresis methods differ with respect to their impact on the coagulation system, on C-reactive protein and on leukocyte count. Cardiovascular events are clearly reduced by the LDL apheresis methods. There is an urgent need to prospectively compare the different LDL apheresis methods taking into account hard end points. The lower target values for LDL cholesterol suggested by international guidelines for high-risk patients will certainly require a more widespread use of LDL apheresis.