Long-term results after open reduction of developmental hip dislocation by an anterior approach lateral and medial of the iliopsoas muscle

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The technique of and especially the approach to open reduction of developmental dislocation of the hip are still a matter of discussion. The anterior approach, first lateral and then medial to the iliopsoas muscle, was described by Tönnis in 1978. A follow-up investigation to adulthood has now been performed. Eighty-seven children (118 hips) out of 105 children (83%) who underwent open reduction of developmental dislocation of the hip before the age of 4 years were reinvestigated 10–21 years after the operation. An anterior approach first lateral, then medial to the iliopsoas muscle was chosen, because this offers the best access to the joint. Additional operations including transiliac osteotomy for acetabuloplasty, shortening osteotomy, and femoral osteotomies were performed as necessary. In 92 (78%) of the 118 hips studied the CE angle exceeded 25° and in 98 hips (83%) the VCA angle exceeded 25°. Critical CE angles between 20 and 25° were found in 14% of the hips, and critical VCA angles in 4%. Residual dysplasia (<20°) was found in 8 and 13% of the hips, respectively. Avascular necrosis according to Hirohashi was observed after operation in grade 1 in 5.9% and grade 2 in 1.7%. No necrosis was found following shortening osteotomy of the proximal femur. The anterior approach, first lateral, then medial to the iliopsoas muscle, offers an optimal access to the medial parts of the joint with control of reduction, protects the vasculature of the femoral neck, and allows simultaneous postero-lateral capsulorrhaphy and pelvic osteotomies.

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