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Failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) is a proactive multistep tool used to analyze risks, identify failures before they occur, and prioritize preventive measures.A multidisciplinary team trained on FMEA methodology analyzed the process of treatment of septic patients and recorded processes under 3 major phases (recognition of severe sepsis, referral, and resuscitation). The team identified potential failure modes in each process; assigned severity, occurrence, and detection scores for each; and calculated the risk priority numbers (RPNs). Finally, higher-priority failure modes (RPN of ≥300) were analyzed to redesign the care process.We identified 27 processes and 48 failure modes with a mean RPN of 270. Twenty-two high-risk failures were identified by RPN of 300 or higher. All identified critical processes were related to phase 1 (recognition of sepsis) and phase 3 (resuscitation). The most critical process seemed to be related to the initial workup and treatment of septic patients, with 4 potential failure modes and a total RPN of 1485.Patient safety and care reliability issues are a major concern in health care. This study suggests that tools such as FMEA can enable a detailed analysis of the care process of septic patients by outlining potential failure modes and guiding improvement efforts.