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Many environmental and genetic factors influence the development of chemoresistance. The goal of this study was to characterize the genetic variation in the ABCB1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes, as well as the haplotype structure in the ABCB1 gene.Variants in these genes were studied in 109 healthy controls and 93 breast cancer cases, both of Caucasian origin. The cases were analyzed in relation to TP53 mutation status and response to doxorubicin. Both single and multiple single nucleotide polymorphism analyses were performed.Chi-square analyses revealed a significant association between TP53 mutation status and both the GA genotype of ABCB1 exon 11 (Ser400Asn) and the GG genotype of GSTP1 (Ile105Val; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Multifactor dimensionality reduction showed that carriers of the combined GG genotype for GSTP1 and the GG for ABCB1 exon 11 had the highest chance of acquiring a mutation in the TP53 gene (P<0.02). Haplotype analysis of ABCB1 revealed a significantly different distribution of haplotypes between the breast cancer cases and the controls (P<0.01). A specific haplotype association to TP53 mutation (P<0.01) distant metastases (P<0.05) and estrogen receptor status (P<0.05) was also observed in the case group.An association between polymorphisms in GSTP1 and ABCB1 and risk o acquiring intratumoral TP53 mutations suggests the existence of putative predisposing genotype backgrounds. The degree of linkage disequilibrium in the ABCB1 gene was higher in healthy individuals, whereas haplotypes in the cases seemed degenerated by a number of low frequency variants. This observation may either point to the existence of a protective haplotype in the controls or may underline the importance of the accumulation of low frequency variants as susceptibility factors.