Metformin is transported into the hepatocyte by organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) and out of the hepatocyte by multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 (MATE1). Recently, we discovered that polymorphisms rs622342 A>C in the SLC22A1 gene, coding for OCT1, and rs2289669 G>A in the SLC47A1 gene, coding for MATE1, are associated with the degree of glucose lowering by metformin. In this study, we assessed whether there exists an interaction between these two polymorphisms.Methods
We identified all incident metformin users in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study. Multiplicative interaction between the polymorphisms and change in HbA1c levels was analyzed in 98 incident metformin users.Results
In incident metformin users with the OCT1 rs622342 AA genotype, genetic variation at the MATE1 rs2289669 polymorphism was not associated with change in HbA1c levels [−0.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.35 to 0.14; P=0.39]. In users with the OCT1 rs622342 AC genotype, there was a tendency between rs2289669 polymorphisms and change in HbA1c (−0.31; 95% CI: −0.65 to 0.03; P=0.070) and in users with the OCT1 rs622342 CC genotype there was a significant association with change in HbA1c levels (−0.68; 95% CI: −1.06 to −0.30; P=0.005). The multiplicative interaction between these two genotypes was statistically significant (−0.52; 95% CI: −0.94 to −0.11; P=0.015).Conclusion
The effect of the MATE1 rs2289669 polymorphism on the glucose lowering effect of metformin is larger in incident users with the OCT1 rs622342 CC genotype than in incident users with the AA genotype. The effect in incident users with the OCT1 rs622342 AC genotype is in between.