Role of adjuvants in modeling the immune response

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Purpose of reviewRecent clinical trial results have indicated that it may be possible for vaccines to induce protection against HIV. To build on this result, strategies should be designed to enhance duration, breadth, and magnitude of antibody production. Strategic formulation of agonists of the innate immune system and carriers that selectively present the target antigen yields a class of pharmaceuticals, named ‘adjuvants’, that greatly influence immunity resulting from vaccination. As researchers begin to focus not only on creating an immune response to an antigen, but also on the quality of that response, the role of adjuvants is becoming increasingly significant. This review is intended to give an overview of recent findings on how adjuvants model the immune response to antigens with a focus on the field of vaccines for HIV.Recent findingsIt is clear that innate and adaptive immunity are linked by communication channels that allow innate signals to influence the quality of adaptive responses as well as adaptive signals that temper innate responses. Adjuvants take advantage of this bridge to shape the immune response to antigens. In this review, we will discuss the different classes of adjuvants currently available; recent findings on the relationship between adjuvants and the type of immune profile generated; and the breadth of neutralizing antibodies as influenced by adjuvants.SummaryBecause adjuvants influence the breadth of antibodies generated and the type of cells that proliferate in response to a vaccine this review is relevant for scientists clinicians involved in creating a new HIV vaccine.

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