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Nonhuman primate (NHP) models of AIDS are powerful systems for evaluating HIV vaccine approaches in vivo. Authentic features of HIV-1 transmission, dissemination, target cell tropism, and pathogenesis, and aspects of anti-HIV-1 immune responses, can be recapitulated in NHPs provided the appropriate, specific model parameters are considered. Here, we discuss key model parameter options and their implications for HIV-1 vaccine evaluation.With the availability of several different NHP host species/subspecies, different challenge viruses and challenge stock production methods, and various challenge routes and schemata, multiple NHP models of AIDS exist for HIV vaccine evaluation. The recent development of multiple new challenge viruses, including chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses and simian immunodeficiency virus clones, improved characterization of challenge stocks and production methods, and increased insight into specific challenge parameters have resulted in an increase in the number of available models and a better understanding of the implications of specific study design choices.Recent progress and technical developments promise new insights into basic disease mechanisms and improved models for better preclinical evaluation of interventions to prevent HIV transmission.