Reaching the second 90: the strategies for linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy initiation

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Purpose of reviewWe present recent literature describing interventions for linkage to HIV care in the era of Universal Test and Treat (UTT) policies. We also provide information for ongoing studies of linkage to care strategies registered with findingsDifferentiated service delivery for linkage to care involves implementing strategies that simplify and adapt HIV services to better serve individual needs and reduce unnecessary burdens on the health system. Recent strategies have focused not only on clinic-based populations testing for HIV but also emphasize community-based services and HIV self-testing, which create different challenges for linkage to the healthcare system. Some recent developments in linkage to care strategies include: case management, care integration with other desirable health services, financial incentives, home-based, and peer-led services. The demonstrated strategies have varying levels of success and engagement in care; further work is needed to address ongoing barriers in HIV care.SummaryProgress towards meeting the 90–90–90 benchmarks has left gaps in linkage to care that require care-system development to facilitate increased access to care under UTT policies. Most notably, new strategies will need to focus on addressing the distinct needs of key populations and bolstering linkage to care from community-based and self-testing services.

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