Forty-four patients undergoing single-stage surgery for scoliosis were monitored for biochemical and clinical evidence of pancreatitis. Six patients (14%) developed elevation of both serum amylase and lipase levels. Four of these had symptoms or signs suggestive of pancreatitis. Mean intraoperative blood loss was significantly higher in the group with pancreatitis. No significant differences were noted with regard to age, surgical technique, degree of initial or residual deformity, or length of surgery. The patients with pancreatitis required a longer average period of fasting time. Patients with prolonged ileus or abdominal pain after scoliosis surgery should be investigated for possible pancreatitis.