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There is little published evidence on how well family medicine physicians (FMPs) with substance use disorder (SUD) perform in Physician Health Programs (PHPs). We examined outcomes for FMP compared with non-FMP physicians.This study utilized data from a 5-year, longitudinal, cohort study involving 904 physicians with diagnoses of SUD consecutively admitted to one of 16 state PHPs between 1995 and 2001. We compared 175 FMPs to 687 other physicians. Outcome measures were relapse, successful completion of monitoring contract at 5 years, and licensed and employed at 5 years.Of the 3 outcome variables measured: relapse, successful completion of monitoring contract at 5 years, and licensed and employed at 5 years, FMPs had similar rates of success on all variables except monitoring contract completion at 5 years when compared with the other physician cohort.In this study, FMPs with SUD do as well as other physicians in PHPs at 5 years. However, FMPs were less likely to complete the monitoring contract at 5 years as compared to the other physician cohort.