Prevalence of allergic disease has increased in recent years all over the world. Asthma and rhinitis are the most prevalent in Portugal and, having them such a multi-factorial basis, atopy is the most important risk factor for its development. The authors aim to evaluate mono/polisensitization as risk factors for severity of allergic disease, if there is an impact in allergic disease manifestations number, the different treatment response, and if there is a relationship between VEMs, comorbilities and sensitization.Methods
In a population of patients followed in asthma/allergology appointment were selected those with asthma and allergic rhinitis confirmed by cutaneous test and/or specific IgE. Clinical processes were reviewed and analyzed data related to the age of beginning, manifestations, atopic profile, severity, treatment, comorbilities and functional limitation. A descriptive analysis of the sample was made and used linear regression for variable correlations.Results
176 patients 30% men and 70% women, mean age 33,7 and mean age of early symptoms 12,7 Of these, 94% had asthma and 85% rhinitis. They were 53% monosensitized, 47% polisensisitized and 43% had comorbilities. 66,5% of patients has done specific immunotherapy (SIT). On linear regression analysis it was found that different sensitization has not been determinative for disease manifestations number neither of treatment response. It was observed that severity of asthma and rhinitis correlate with each other (P < 0,001), but no significant differences were verified in severity level between patients mono vs polisensitized. SIT demonstrate a positive and statistically significant correlation with treatment reduction (P < 0,001) and reduction on asthma and rhinitis severity (P = 0,015 and P < 0,001). SIT patients also demonstrate a decrease in asthma severity associated to the number of allergen sensitizations. It was found a positive correlation between the presence and number of comorbilities and asthma and rhinitis severity (P = 0,001/P < 0,001 and P = 0,007/P = 0,001), instead of individually, only nasal polyposis prove to be associated with statistical significance. Comorbilities were also related with a lower FEV1 (P = 0,02).Conclusions
This study supports literature data, which says there is only one allergic disease and that severity of disease extends to its various manifestations. We confirmed that in atopic patients, SIT has benefit in the reduction on allergic disease severity and a better disease control with minor therapeutic use.