Predictable method to deliver physiologic force for extrusion of palatally impacted maxillary canines

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Orthodontic treatment of palatally impacted maxillary canines raises many difficulties; to minimize complications, careful planning of orthodontic extrusion and the use of physiologic force are crucial. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate a simple and reproducible system for orthodontic extrusion of impacted canines that can provide the correct amount of force.


Ten specimens were constructed, consisting of a cantilever made with a 0.6-mm or 0.7-mm stainless steel wire modeled around a transpalatal bar with 3, 5, or 7 loops in the shape of a helical torsion spring. A mechanical testing machine was used to measure the force produced by the cantilever at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 mm of activation.


The force values ranged from 1.24 ± 0.13 N for the 0.7-mm wire with 3 loops to 0.48 ± 0.04 N for the 0.6-mm wire with 7 loops. The forces measured for the 0.6-mm wire with 3 loops and the 0.7-mm wire with 7 loops were similar at 15 mm of deflection.


The proposed system has a simple and robust design, is easy to construct and manage, and can provide the desired amount of force by changing the wire diameter and number of loops.

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