| The combined use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) can improve overall survival in aggressive, localized prostate cancer. However, owing to the adverse effects of prolonged ADT, it is imperative to identify the patients who would benefit from this combined-modality therapy relative to the use of IGRT alone. Opportunities exist for more personalized approaches in treating aggressive, locally advanced prostate cancer. Biomarkers—such as disseminated tumour cells, circulating tumour cells, genomic signatures and molecular imaging techniques—could identify the patients who are at greatest risk for systemic metastases and who would benefit from the addition of systemic ADT. By contrast, when biomarkers of systemic disease are not present, treatment could proceed using local IGRT alone. The choice of drug, treatment duration and timing of ADT relative to IGRT could be predicated on these personalized approaches to prostate cancer medicine. These novel treatment intensification and reduction strategies could result in improved prostate-cancer-specific survival and overall survival, without incurring the added expense of metabolic syndrome and other adverse effects of ADT in all patients.