Messenger, K. M., Wofford, J. A., Papich, M. G. Carprofen pharmacokinetics in plasma and in control and inflamed canine tissue fluid using in vivo ultrafiltration. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.39, 32–39.
Measurement of unbound drug concentrations at their sites of action is necessary for accurate PK/PD modeling. The objective of this study was to determine the unbound concentration of carprofen in canine interstitial fluid (ISF) using in vivo ultrafiltration and to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of free carprofen concentrations between inflamed and control tissue sites. We hypothesized that active concentrations of carprofen would exhibit different dispositions in ISF between inflamed vs. normal tissues. Bilateral ultrafiltration probes were placed subcutaneously in six healthy Beagle dogs 12 h prior to induction of inflammation. Two milliliters of either 2% carrageenan or saline control was injected subcutaneously at each probe site, 12 h prior to intravenous carprofen (4 mg/kg) administration. Plasma and ISF samples were collected at regular intervals for 72 h, and carprofen concentrations were determined using HPLC. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations were quantified in ISF using ELISA. Unbound carprofen concentrations were higher in ISF compared with predicted unbound plasma drug concentrations. Concentrations were not significantly higher in inflamed ISF compared with control ISF. Compartmental modeling was used to generate pharmacokinetic parameter estimates, which were not significantly different between sites. Terminal half-life (T½) was longer in the ISF compared with plasma. PGE2 in ISF decreased following administration of carprofen. In vivo ultrafiltration is a reliable method to determine unbound carprofen in ISF, and that disposition of unbound drug into tissue is much higher than predicted from unbound drug concentration in plasma. However, concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameter estimates are not significantly different in inflamed vs. un-inflamed tissues.