Decreased glutamatergic neurotransmission is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Inhibition of glycine transporter Type-1 (GlyT1) reuptake is expected to increase the glutamatergic neurotransmission and may serve as treatment for cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this article, we present human data from a novel GlyT1 PET tracer, [18F]MK-6577. In the process of developing a GlyT1 inhibitor therapeutic, a PET tracer can assist in determining the dose with a high probability of sufficiently testing the mechanism of action. This article reports the human PET studies with [18F]MK-6577 for measuring GlyT1 receptor availability at baseline in normal human subjects and occupancy with a GlyT1 inhibitor, MK-2637. Studies were also performed to measure radiation burden and the baseline test-retest (T-RT) variability of the tracer. The effective dose from sequential whole-body dosimetry scans in three male subjects was estimated to be 24.5 ± 2.9 μSV/MBq (mean ± SD). The time–activity curves from T-RT scans modeled satisfactorily using a two tissue compartmental model. The tracer uptake was highest in the pons (VT = 6.7 ± 0.9, BPND = 4.1 ± 0.43) and lowest in the cortex (VT = 2.1 ± 0.5, BPND = 0.60 ± 0.23). VT T-RT variability measured in three subjects was <12% on average. The occupancy scans performed in a cohort of 15 subjects indicated absence of a reference region. The in vivo potency (Occ50) of MK-2637 was determined using two methods: A: Lassen plot with a population input function (Occ50 = 106 nM, SE = 20 nM) and B: pseudo reference tissue model using cortex as the pseudo reference region (Occ50 = 141 nM, SE = 21 nM). Synapse 69:33–40, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.