Key Factors Influencing the Emergence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Resistance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

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The emergence and spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance from antiretroviral roll-out programs remain a threat to long-term control of the HIV-AIDS epidemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The patterns of drug resistance and factors driving emergence of resistance are complex and multifactorial. The key drivers of drug resistance in LMICs are reviewed here, and recommendations are made to limit their influence on antiretroviral therapy efficacy.

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