Preperitoneal balloon tamponade and resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta: Alternatives to open packing for pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage

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BACKGROUNDThe objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of preperitoneal balloon tamponade (PPB), resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the orta (REBOA), and open preperitoneal packing (OP) in a realistic animal model of pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage.METHODSThirty-nine swine underwent creation of open-book pelvic fracture and iliac vascular injury. Animals were randomized to no intervention (n = 7), OP (n = 10), PPB (n = 9), zone 1 REBOA (n = 7), and zone 3 REBOA (n = 6) at a mean arterial pressure less than 40 mm Hg from uncontrolled hemorrhage. Primary outcome was survival at 1 hour. Secondary outcomes included survival in the immediate 10 m following intervention reversal, peak preperitoneal pressure (PP), blood loss, bleed rate, and peak lactate.RESULTSPrior to injury, no difference was measured between groups for weight, hemodynamics, lactate, and hematocrit (all p = NS). The injury was uniformly lethal without intervention, with survival time (mean) of 5 m, peak PP of 14 mm Hg, blood loss of 960 g, bleed rate of 450 g/m, and peak lactate of 2.6 mmol/L. Survival time (m) was extended to 44 with OP, 60 with PPB, and 60 with REBOA (p < 0.01). Peak PP (mm Hg) was 19 with OP, 23 with PPB, 10 with zone 1 REBOA, and 6 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.05). Blood loss (g) was 850 with OP, 930 with PPB, 610 with zone 1 REBOA, and 370 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01). Peak lactate (mmol/L) was 3.3 with OP, 4.3 with PPB, 13.4 with zone 1 REBOA, and 5.3 with zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01). Only 33% of zone 1 REBOA animals survived the initial 10 m after balloon deflation, compared to 60% for OP, 67% for PPB, and 100% for zone 3 REBOA (p < 0.01).CONCLUSIONPreperitoneal balloon tamponade and zone 3 REBOA are effective alternatives to OP in this animal model of lethal pelvic fracture-associated hemorrhage. Zone 1 REBOA extends survival time but with high mortality upon reversal.

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