Loss of Response to Anti-TNFs: Definition, Epidemiology, and Management

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Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) antagonists have advanced the management of inflammatory bowel diseases patients leading to an improvement of patient's quality of life with the reduction of number of surgeries and hospitalizations. Despite these advances, many patients do not respond to the induction therapy (primary non-response—PNR) or lose response during the treatment (secondary loss of response—LOR). In this paper we will provide an overview of the definition, epidemiology and risk factors for PNR and LOR, as well as discuss the therapeutic options for managing LOR.

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