Risk of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Gastroduodenal Ulcers in Persons With Schizophrenia: A Danish Cohort Study

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INTRODUCTION:There is little evidence about gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in patients with schizophrenia. We examined association of schizophrenia with upper GI bleeding (UGIB) and nonbleeding ulcers and associated risk factors and mortality.METHODS:We used the data linked from population-based registries in Denmark. Among patients with incident schizophrenia in 1980–2011, we computed cumulative incidences and standardized incidence ratios of UGIB, bleeding ulcers, and nonbleeding ulcers compared with the general population; evaluated risk factors for the 3 GI endpoints, including somatic and psychiatric comorbidity; and examined subsequent all-cause mortality.RESULTS:Among 39,998 patients with schizophrenia, the standardized incidence ratios were 2.92 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.76–3.08) for UGIB, 2.36 (95% CI, 2.15–2.58) for bleeding ulcers, and 2.00 (95% CI, 1.87–2.15) for nonbleeding ulcers. Risk factors for UGIB and nonbleeding ulcers included age, somatic comorbidity, and medication use. UGIB and nonbleeding ulcers were associated with the subsequent increase in mortality.CONCLUSIONS:Schizophrenia is associated with an increased risk of UGIB and nonbleeding ulcers, whose risk factors in patients with schizophrenia are similar to those in the general population.

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