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Neurological complications are common after lung transplantation. However, no large cohort studies have examined the incidence, predictors, and clinical significance of neurological events sustained by lung transplant recipients.We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of a consecutive series of lung transplant recipients, transplanted at Duke University Medical Center between May 2014 and February 2017 (n = 276). Early neurological complications (ie, occurring during the first week after transplant) were documented by transplant mental health specialists and included delirium, ischemic injury, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Analyses accounted for age, native disease, sex, type of transplant, lung allocation score, and primary graft dysfunction. The objectives of the study were to characterize the prevalence and predictors of early neurological sequelae (NSE), occurring during the first week posttransplant, and the association between NSE and subsequent clinical outcomes, including length of stay and mortality.Neurological sequelae were common, occurring in 123 (45%) patients. Fifty-seven patients died over a follow-up interval of 2.1 years. The most common NSE were postoperative delirium (n = 110 [40%]) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (n = 12 [4%]), followed by stroke/transient ischemic attack and neurotoxicity. Higher lung allocation score was the strongest predictor of delirium. The presence of a NSE was associated with longer length of hospital stay (32 days vs 17 days, P < 0.001) and greater mortality (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.32], P = 0.024), with the greatest mortality risk occurring approximately 2 years after transplantation.Neurological events are relatively common after lung transplantation and associated with adverse clinical outcomes.