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The 2018 Edition of the Declaration of Istanbul on Organ Trafficking and Transplant Tourism (DoI) provides an updated set of principles and definitions to guide policymakers and health professionals working in organ donation and transplantation. A draft of the new edition was circulated to the public and transplant professionals through an online consultation process, which also sought feedback on a draft explanatory article that explained the principles and discussed some of their practical implications. Both drafts were revised in response to feedback from participants in the consultation. We present here the discussion article, which is intended to assist stakeholders in applying the principles of the DoI by providing more detailed information about the meaning and potential implications of implementing the DoI in various contexts.