Tissue engineering trachea is a substitute for surgical reparation of tracheal defect. It is an artificial trachea with biological activity, which was constructed in vitro by utilizing the technologies and principles in tissue engineering. Compared to other trachea substitutions, tissue engineering trachea owns many advantages, such as biologically active and growth potential, and non-immunogenicity. Seed cells, which are the most important research aspects of tissue engineering, are the necessary substantial for the emergence of tissues or organs in tissue engineering, while the tracheal epithelium cells, are an essential part for tissue engineering trachea. This essay illustrated from the research progress of technology in isolating and culturing the tracheal epithelium cells, and pinpointed the coming problems and the future research orientation concerning tissue engineering trachea.