Application of stem cells in repair and reconstruction of low urinary system using tissue engineering technology

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The research of urologic reconstruction with tissue engineering techniques has been carried out for a couple of years. However, the clinical application is impeded by the difficulties in drawing materials and lack of sufficient cells for seeding. The stem cells have the ability of self-renewal and differentiating into desired cell lines, which also have the advantage of less invasive to be harvested, provide new opportunities for further research. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in the autologous augmentation cystoplasty in recent years, and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells can undergo directed differentiation toward to endodermal derived urothelium in the appropriate signaling environment. The stem cells were supposed to differentiate in urethral tissue like cells in bladder tissue according to the similar inner environment. Transurethral ultrasound (TUUS)-guided injections of autologous myoblasts and fibroblasts is an effective and minimally invasive treatment modality to treat stress urinary incontinence. In addition, eNOS-transduced syngeneic MSCs can improve erectile function through accelerating eNOS expression and improving endothelial-derived NO biosynthesis.

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