Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), a familiar experience for athletes or common people, hinders their athletic performance. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the mechanism of DOMS for prevention or treatment laws. However, the internal mechanism that arouses DOMS remains unclear. Some recent studies suggest that DOMS may result from multifactor such as the formation of sarcomere, disorder of microcirculation, and changing of peripheral nervous system. This article makes a review of the recent development of DOMS mechanism and puts forward some treatment principles.