Effects of surface modification and nanometer material on bone-prosthesis osseointegration in osteoporosis models*☆

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Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating can improve the initial and mid-term fixation of prosthesis. However, its long-term stabilization is unsatisfactory. A large number of studies report that nano-HA coating and surface modification of prosthesis can improve the osteointegration at prosthesis-bone interface. Yet, comparative study on osteointegration of nano-materials and surface modification has not been reported.


To compare effects of nano-materials and surface modification on osteointegration in osteoporosis (OP) model.


A randomized control experiment was performed in the Animal Experimental Centre of Sun Yat-sun University from September to December 2007 and Histomorphometry Laboratory of the Hong Kong University from March to May 2008, respectively.


Porous HA-coating and surface modified nanometer prostheses sized 3 mm × 3 mm were provided by Department of Materials, South China University of Technology.


Thirty-two female SD rats, five-month old, were randomly divided into four groups: group A in which rats received sham surgery and was implanted with porous HA, group B in which rats received sham surgery and was implanted with smooth surface nano-HA, group C in which ovariectomized (OVX) rats was implanted with porous HA, and group D in which OVX rats was implanted with smooth surface nano-HA, with eight rats in each group. Rats in group C and D underwent ovariectomy to establish osteoporosis models. Porous and smooth surface HA prostheses were implanted into superior segments of tibia in each group.


At 12 weeks after sacrifice, the bone quantity and osteointegration around the HA implant were observed and the osteointegration at the surface between bone and implant was calculated.


① Osteointegration rate (OIS) in group C was 23.7%, which was significantly higher than group D 16.9% (P < 0.05). ② The OIS in the OVX groups was significantly less than sham surgery groups, reducing 30.8% and 13.0%, respectively.


Surface modification can notably promote osteointegration at implant-bone interface in osteoporosis condition. The smooth surface of nano-HA prothesis fails to take advantage of the benefit of nano-HA. Referring to HA coating, surface modification of coating plays a more important role in promoting osteointegration, compared to coating material.

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